Nigeria Flag


Nigeria Colony and Protectorate Ensign 1900-1914

1 Jan 1900 - 1 Jan 1914

[British Nigeria Blue Ensign 1914-1960]

1 Jan 1914 - 1 Oct 1960

[Flag of Nigeria]

Adopted 1 Oct 1960







Map of NigeriaHear National Anthem
"Arise Oh Compatriots,
Nigeria's Call Obey"
Adopted 1978

Hear Former Anthem
"Nigeria We Hail Thee"
(1960-1978)
Constitution
(29 May 1999)
-------------------------------
Former Constitution
(1960-1979)
Capital: Abuja
(Lagos 1914-12 Dec 1991)
Currency: Naira (NGN)National Holiday: 1 Oct (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 135,031,164 (2007)
GDP: $188.5 billion (2006) Exports: $59.0 billion (2006)
Imports: $25.1 billion (2006)
Ethnic groups: Yoruba 17.5%, Hausa 17.2%,
Igbo (Ibo) 13.3%, Fulani 10.7%, Ijaw 10%, Ibibio 4.1%,
Kanuri 3.6%, Egba 2.9%, Tiv 2.6%, Igbirra (Ebira) 1.1%,
Nupe 1%, Edo 1%, other 15% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 78,500 (2003)
Merchant marine: 52 ships (2006)
Religions: Christian 45.9% (of which  independent Christian 15%,
Anglican 13%, other Protestant 9%, Roman Catholic 8%), 
Muslim 43.9%, traditional beliefs 9.8%, other 0.4% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, C, CTBT, D-8, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt,  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO



Nigeria IndexChronology

30 Jun 1849 Bight of Biafra British protectorate.
1 Feb 1852 Bight of Benin British protectorate.
6 Aug 1861 Bights of Biafra and Benin a united protectorate.
5 Jun 1885 British protectorate over Brass, Bonny, Opobo, Aobh, and Old Calabar (excluding Lagos).


1891 Oil Rivers Protectorate
13 May 1893 Niger Coast Protectorate
1 Jan 1900 British Nigerian colonies.

1 Jan 1900 Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria.
16 Feb 1906 Lagos incorporated into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.


1 Jan 1914 Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
1 Oct 1954 Federation of Nigeria (autonomous).
1 Oct 1960 Independence from Britain (Federation of Nigeria).


1 Oct 1963 Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966 Republic of Nigeria
31 Aug 1966 Federal Republic of Nigeria
30 May 1967 Secession of Biafra (not internationally recognized).
12 Jan 1970 Reintegration of Biafra.

Nigeria
(from 1914)
States
(since 1967)
Provinces
and Regions (1916-1967)
Traditional
States
Northern Nigeria
(1885-1914)
Southern Nigeria
(1849-1914)
Niger Rivers
District
(1879-1900)
Lagos
(1861-1906)
Biafra
(1967-1970)
Republic of Benin
(1967)

Northern Nigeria


[Royal Niger Company flag 1887-1888
2 Jun 1887 - 1 Feb 1888 Royal Niger Company

Northern Nigeria Protectorate Ensign 1900-1914
1 Jan 1900  - 1 Jan 1914


Capital: LokojaPopulation: N/A

5 Jun 1885 Niger Districts Protectorate (under United African Company).
10 Jul 1886 - 9 Aug 1899 Niger River Delta Protectorate (under Royal Niger Company).
9 Aug 1899 Becomes the British Northern Nigeria protectorate (effective 1 Jan 1900).
1 Jan 1914 Part of British Nigeria Colony and protectorate as northern provinces.

Director
5 Jun 1885 - 10 Jul 1886 Sir George Goldie (born. 1846 - died. 1925)



Governors
10 Jul 1886 - 25 Feb 1895 Baron Aberdare
25 Feb 1895 - 1 Jan 1900 Sir George Goldie (s.a.)


High commissioners
1 Jan 1900 - Nov 1906 Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (born. 1858-died-1945)

(from 1901, Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard)
Nov 1906 - Apr 1907 Sir William Wallace (acting)
Apr 1907 - 1908 Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard (born. 1867 - died. 1932)


Governors
1908 - 28 Sep 1909 Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard (s.a.)
28 Sep 1909 - 1912 Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell (born. 1864 - died. 1952)
1912 - 1 Jan 1914 Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (s.a.)




Southern Nigeria

[Oil Rivers Protectorate 1885-1896]
1885 - 5 Jun 1896

[Niger Coast Protectorate enisgn 1896-1900]
5 Jun 1896 - 1 Jan 1900

[Southern Nigeria Protectorate Ensign 1900-1906]
1 Jan 1900 - 16 Feb 1906

[Southern Nigeria Colony and Protecorate ensign 1906-1914
16 Feb 1906 - 1 Jan 1914

Capital: Lagos
(Calabar 1904-1914;
Old Calabar 1885-1904;
[[Bight of Biafra- Bonny 1849-1885; Bight of Benin-
Lagos 1852-1861])
Population: N/A

30 Jun 1849 Bight of Biafra British protectorate.
1 Feb 1852 Bight of Benin British protectorate.
6 Aug 1861 Bights of Biafra and Benin a united British protectorate.
16 Jul 1884 British protectorate over Brass, Bonny, Opobo, Aobh, and Old Calabar (excluding Lagos)


(confirmed 5 Jun 1885), named Oil Rivers Protectorate.


Aug 1891 Effective consular administration established.
12 May 1893 Niger Coast Protectorate
1 Jan 1900 Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
16 Feb 1906 Lagos incorporated.
28 Feb 1906 Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria

1 Jan 1914 Part of British Nigeria Colony and Protectorate as Southern provinces.

Consuls of the Bight of Benin
May 1852 - 1853 Louis Fraser
1853 - Apr 1859 Benjamin Campbell
Apr 1859 - 1860 George Brand
1860 - Jan 1861 Henry Hand
Jan 1861 - May 1861 Henry Grant Foote
May 1861 - 6 Aug 1861 William McCoskry (acting)



Consuls of the Bight of Biafra (from 6 Aug 1861, Bights of Biafra and Benin)
30 Jun 1849 - 10 Jun 1854 John Beecroft (died. 1854)
10 Jun 1854 - 1855 James Lynslager (acting)
1855 - 1861 Thomas Joseph Hutchinson
1861 - Dec 1864 Richard Francis Burton
Dec 1864 - 1873 Charles Livingstone
1873 - 1878 George Hartley
1878 - 13 Sep 1879 David Hopkins
13 Sep 1879 - 5 Jun 1885 Edward Hyde Hewett


Consuls-general
5 Jun 1885 - 1 Jan 1891 Edward Hyde Hewett
1 Jan 1891 - 3 Aug 1891 Synge (acting)



Commissioners
3 Aug 1891 - 1896 Claude Maxwell MacDonald (born. 1852 - died 1915)
(from 1892, Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald)
1893 - 13 May 1893 Ralph Denham Rayment Moor (born. 1860 - died 1909)
(acting for MacDonald)
1896 - 1 Jan 1900 Ralph Denham Rayment Moor (s.a.)
(from 1897, Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moore)
Nov 1896 - 4 Jan 1897 Phillips (acting for Moor)


High commissioners 
1 Jan 1900 - Aug 1904 Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moor (s.a.)
1900 Henry Gallwey (acting for Moor)
Aug 1904 - 28 Feb 1906 Walter Egerton (born. 1858 - died. 1947)
(from 1905, Sir Walter Egerton)

Governors
28 Feb 1906 - 1912 Sir Walter Egerton (s.a.)
1907 James Thorburn (acting for Egerton)
1912 - 1 Jan 1914 Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (s.a.)


Niger Rivers District


[Royal Niger Company flag 1887-1888
2 Jun 1887 - 1 Feb 1888 Royal Niger Company

Niger Rivers District ensign 1886-1900
1 Feb 1888 - 1 Jan 1900


Capital: AsabaPopulation: N/A

1879 United African Company (U.A.C.) formed by George T. Goldie
to exploit resources in the Niger Rivers District.
1882 Renamed National African Company Limited (N.A.C.)
10 Jul 1886 Renamed Royal Niger Company Chartered Limit (R.N.C.) was granted a Royal Charter by Britain allowing it to exploit and administer the region.
1 Jan 1900 Company transfers its territories to Britain; incorporated into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate.



Senior Agent
1879 - 1882 David McIntosh (born. 1844 - died. 1888)


General Agents
1882 - 1888 David McIntosh (s.a.)
1888 - 1 Jan 1900 Joseph Flint (died. 1925)


Lagos

[Flag of West Africa Settlements]

1870 - 1886

[Lagos colonial ensign 1886-1906]
1886 - 16 Feb 1906

Capital: LagosPopulation: N/A
6 Aug 1861 British colony as Lagos; local dynasty continues
(see under Nigerian traditional states)
(subordinated to Sierra Leone 1866-74,
and to then Gold Coast 1874-86).


19 Feb 1866 - 24 Jul 1874 Lagos settlements a territory of British West Africa.
24 Jul 1874 Part of Gold Coast Lagos colony.
13 Jan 1886 Lagos a separate colony.
18 Oct 1887 Lagos protectorate in hinterland.
16 Feb 1906 Incorporated into Southern Nigeria Protectorate.

Governors
6 Aug 1861 - 22 Jan 1862 William McCoskry (acting)
22 Jan 1862 - 1863 Henry Stanhope Freeman
1863 - 1864 W.R. Mullinar (acting)
1864 - 19 Feb 1866 John Hawley Glover (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
(acting to Apr 1865)


Administrators
19 Feb 1866 - Feb 1866 Charles George Edward Patey (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
(acting)
Feb 1866 - 1870 John Halwey Glover (s.a.)
1870 Miles Cooper (acting)
1870 - 1871 W.H. Simpson (acting)
1871 - 1872 J. Gerrard
1872 Henry Fowler
1872 - 1873 George Berkeley (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
1873 Charles Cameron Lees (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
(acting)




1873 - 1874 George Cumine Strahan (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
1874 - 27 Jul 1874 John Shaw (acting)
27 Jul 1874 - 1875 Charles Cameron Lees (2nd time) (s.a.)
1875 - 1878 John d'Arcy Dumares
1878 F. Simpson (acting)
1878 Malcolm Brown (acting)
1878 - 1880 Cornelius Alfred Moloney (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
1880 William Brandford Griffith (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
1880 - 1883 C.D. Turton


Lieutenant governors
1883 Corneilus Alfred Moloney (acting) (s.a.)
1883 Fred Evans (acting)
1883 - 1884 William Brandford Griffith (s.a.)
1884 R. Murray Rumsey
1884 - 1885 R. Knapp Burrow
1885 - 13 Jan 1886 C. Pike



Governors
13 Jan 1886 - 1891 Cornelius Alfred Moloney (s.a.)
1889 - 1890 George Denton (acting for Moloney)
1891 - 1897 Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1897 - 1899 Henry Edward McCallum (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
1899 - 1902 Sir William MacGregor (b. 1847 - d. 1919)
1902 - Aug 1904 Henry Reeve (acting to 1903)
Aug 1904 - 16 Feb 1906 Walter Egerton (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
(from 1905, Sir Walter Egerton)





Nigeria

1 Jan 1914 Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
1 Oct 1954 Federation of Nigeria
1 Oct 1960 Independence (Dominion of Nigeria).
1 Oct 1963 Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966 Republic of Nigeria
31 Aug 1966 Federal Republic of Nigeria
30 May 1967 - 12 Jan 1970 Secession of Biafra.

Governor-general
1 Jan 1914 - 8 Aug 1919 Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (s.a.)



Governors
8 Aug 1919 - 13 Nov 1925 Sir Hugh Charles Clifford (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
13 Nov 1925 - 17 Jun 1931 Sir Graeme Thomson (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
17 Jun 1931 - 1 Nov 1935 Sir Donald Charles Cameron (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
1 Nov 1935 - 1 Jul 1940 Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
1 Jul 1940 - 1942 Sir John Evelyn Shuckburgh (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
1942 - 18 Dec 1943 Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
18 Dec 1943 - 5 Feb 1948 Sir Arthur Frederick Richards (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
5 Feb 1948 - 1 Oct 1954 Sir John Stuart Macpherson (b. 1898 - d. 1971)



Queen
1 Oct 1954 - 1 Oct 1963 the Queen of the United Kingdom


Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state from 1 Oct 1960)
1 Oct 1954 - 15 Jun 1955 Sir John Stuart Macpherson (s.a.) Non-party
15 Jun 1955 - 16 Nov 1960 Sir James Wilson Robertson (b. 1899 - d. 1983) Non-party
16 Nov 1960 - 1 Oct 1963 Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (b. 1904 - d. 1996)  NCNC


President
1 Oct 1963 - 16 Jan 1966 Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (s.a.) NCNC


Heads of the Federal Military Government
(from 24 May to 31 Aug 1966, National Military Government)



16 Jan 1966 - 29 Jul 1966  Johnson Thomas Umurakwe Aguiyi - (born. 1924 - d. 1966) Mil
Ironsi
1 Aug 1966 - 29 Jul 1975 Yakubu Gowon (born. 1934) Mil
29 Jul 1975 - 13 Feb 1976 Murtala Ramat Muhammad (b. 1938 - d. 1976) Mil
14 Feb 1976 - 1 Oct 1979 Olusegun Obasanjo (born. 1937) Mil


President
1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1983 Alhaji Shehu Shagari (born. 1925) NPN


Chairman of the Supreme Military Council
31 Dec 1983 - 27 Aug 1985 Muhammadu Buhari (born. 1942) Mil


President and chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council

(from 4 Jan 1993, president of the National Defense and Security Council)


27 Aug 1985 - 26 Aug 1993 Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (b. 1941) Mil


Interim president
26 Aug 1993 - 17 Nov 1993 Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (b. 1936) Non-party


Chairmen of the Provisional Ruling Council
17 Nov 1993 -  8 Jun 1998 Sani Abacha (b. 1943 - d. 1998) Mil
9 Jun 1998 - 29 May 1999 Abdulsalami Abubakar (b. 1942) Mil


Presidents
29 May 1999 - 29 May 2007 Olusegun Obasanjo (s.a.) PDP
29 May 2007 - Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (b. 1951) PDP


Chief minister
30 Aug 1952 - 1 Oct 1954 Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (s.a.) NCNC


Prime ministers
30 Aug 1957 - 15 Jan 1966 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (b. 1912 - d. 1966) NPC/NNA
(from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa)
15 Jan 1966 - 17 Jan 1966 Zanna Bukar Dipcharima (acting) (b. 1917 - d. 1969) NPC


Chairman of the Transitional Council
4 Jan 1993 - 26 Aug 1993 Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (s.a.)A Non-party

Full style 1961 to 1 Oct 1963: Queen of Nigeria and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.


Territorial Disputes: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including Jun 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation;
only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria.

Party abbreviations (political parties banned 1966-1979, 1983-1989):

AD = Alliance for Democracy (progressive);

APP = All People's Party (conservative);

PDP = People's Democratic Party (centrist);

Mil = Military;


- Former parties:


NNA = Nigerian National Alliance (incl. NPC and Nigerian National Democratic Party);

NPN = National Party of Nigeria (1978-1983, coalition);

NPC = Northern People's Congress (Hausa/Fulani dominated);

NCNC = National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (Igbo dominated);

PDM = People's Democratic Movement;

UPN = Unity Party of Nigeria (1979-1983, seen as pro-ethnic Yoruba)



Biafra
[Flag of Biafra 1967-1970]
30 May 1967 - 12 Jan 1970


Map of BiafraHear National Anthem
Land of the Rising Sun
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1967
Constitution
(30 May 1967)
Capital: Enugu
(Umuahia 1967-69,
Owerri 1969-70)
Currency from 1968:
Biafran Pound (BIAP)
National Holiday: 30 May (1967)
Independence Day
Population: 13,500,000 (1967)
GDP: $N/A Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Igbo (Ibo) 70%, Ibibio, Ijaw,
Ogoja, Ekoi, Efik, and others
Total Armed Forces: 100,000 (1968)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, traditional beliefs
International Organizations/Treaties: None

30 May 1967 Secession of Eastern Region as Republic of Biafra (not internationally recognized).
10-26 Jul 1967
Nigerian federal troops take Ogoja, Nsukka and Bonny Island.
28 Sep 1967 Enugu captured, new capital Unuahia.
24 May 1968 Port Harcourt captured.
22 Apr 1969 Umuahia captured, last capital Owerri.
9 Jan 1970 Owerri captured.
12 Jan 1970 Reintegration into Nigeria.
15 Jan 1970 Biafran forces formally surrender.

Presidents
30 May 1967 - 8 Jan 1970 Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu (born. 1933) Mil
8 Jan 1970 - 12 Jan 1970 Philip Effiong (acting) (born. 1924 - died. 2003) Mil

only nations recognizing Biafra: Gabon (8 May 1968), Haiti (22 Mar 1969), Ivory Coast
(9 May 1968), Tanzania (13 Apr 1968), and Zambia (20 May 1968).




Republic of Benin

[Flag of Rep. of Benin, 1967]
19- 20 Sep 1967

Capital: Benin City Population: N/A

9 Aug 1967 Midwest Region occupied by Biafra.
19 Sep 1967 Republic of Benin declared (07:00)(not recognized).
20 Sep 1967 Re-occupied by Nigeria (13:00).


Biafran Military Administrator
17 Aug 1967 - 19 Sep 1967 Albert Nwazu Okonkwo

Governor
19 Sep 1967 - 20 Sep 1967 Albert Nwazu Okonkwo Mil






Nigeria Currency



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

1 Naira 

Herbert Macaulay
Festac Mask (originated from Benin City)



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

5 Naira 

Alhaji Sir Abubarkar Tafawa Balewa (1912-1966), educationist,
and the first Prime Minister from September 1957 to January 1966
Nkpokiti Dancers from the South Eastern part of Nigeria



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

10 Naira 

Dr. Alvan Ikoku (1900-1971), a prominent educationist
Fulani milk maids



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

20 Naira 

General Murtala Mohammed (1938-1976)
Arms



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

50 Naira 

Portraits of four Nigerians,
three men and a woman, superimposed on the Nigerian map
Farming in its two aspects of cultivating and harvesting.
The right top corner value is on two cowries shells.

Cowrie’s shells were once a medium of exchange in the country



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

100 Naira 

Chief Obafemi Awolowo, former Premier of Western Region
Zuma Rock, a major landmark in Niger State
in the Northern part of the Federation close the Federal Capital



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

200 Naira 

Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sarduana of Sokoto
and the first Premier of Northern Nigeria
Pyramid of agricultural commodity and livestock farming



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

500 Naira 

Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, first President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
Picture of an off-shore oil-rig



Naira - Nigeria
Naira - Nigeria

1000 Naira 

Alhaji Aliyu Mai Bornu and Dr. Clement Isong
CBN's corporate Head Office in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria